When we speak to the other person it often happens that we start talking about the third person that this girl or that boy said this and that to someone. when this type of conversation arrives we may either speak those words exactly as said by the person or we may change the sentence without changing its meaning and report it.
DIRECT SPEECH: In our speech, when we speak to the other person directly the exact sentence as said by the person to someone then it is direct speech.
The girl said to her father, "My bag is empty."
In the above example, "girl" is a third-person whose exact words are written in quotation marks.
Here, the first part of the sentence before the comma is referred to as reporting verb, and the part which is within the inverted commas is called the reported speech.
INDIRECT SPEECH: When we speak to the other person and tell them the sentence that is changed but not the meaning that we had heard from the other person then it is indirect speech.
The girl said to her father her bag was empty.
Here, the sentence said by the girl has changed but the meaning is the same.
|John said I||John said that he|
|" my||" his|
|" we||" they|
Direct: She says, " I am going to London."
Indirect: She says that she is going to London.
Second person changes to third, if there is no mention of second person in the reporting verb.
Note: If there is you (second person) in the direct speech, you in the indirect speech remains unchanged.
Direct: Ahana said to you, "You are a sweet person".
Indirect: Ahana said to you that you were a sweet person.
Direct: Miley said to me, "She has come".
Indirect: Miley said to me that she had come.
|Present Continuous||Past Continuous|
|Present Perfect||Past Perfect|
|Present Perfect Continuous||Present Perfect Continuous|
|Past Indefinite||Past Perfect|
|Past Continuous||Past Perfect Continuous|
|Past Perfect||No Change|
|Past Perfect Continuous||No Change|
Direct: Mummy says, " I will cook pasta today".
Indirect: Mummy says that she will cook pasta today.
Direct: The boy said to his father, "I write every day". (Present Indefinite)
Indirect: The boy said to his father that he wrote every day. (Past indefinite)
Direct: The girl said to her mother, "I shall write a letter". (Future Indefinite)
Indirect: The girl said to her mother that she would write a letter. (Future in the Past)
Direct: The girl said to her friend, "I shall be singing a song. (Future Continuous)
Indirect: The girl said to her friend that she would be singing a song. (Future continuous in the Past)
Note: The tense of the verb does not change in case of universal truth or habitual fact even if the reporting verb is in the past tense.
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|He said, "The horse died in the night."||
|Mummy says. "I will have to go."||
|The girl said to her friend, "I shall have written a letter in the evening.||
|The girl said to her mother, "I have been reading since morning."||
|The boy said to her friend, "I shall have been writing a letter."||
|His father taught him, "The Ramayana is a holy book."||
|He said, " The man was coming."||
|Shano said to me, "He will be defeated."||
|The policeman said to us, "You must not cross the road against the red light."||
|The master said to the servant, "Post the letter at once."||
|He said to me, "Where are you going?"||
|Charlie asked, "Are the boys there?"||
|She said. "The cat was running and the dog was chasing it."||
|He said to me, "There is no more water."||
|He said. "I cried out when I saw the thief coming."||